El biogás es la única energía renovable que puede usarse para cualquiera de las grandes aplicaciones energéticas
Biogas is a gas composed mainly of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), in varying proportions depending on the composition of the organic matter from which it is generated. The main sources of biogas are wastes from livestock and agro-industry, sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants and the organic fraction of household waste.
The biological decomposition processes in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic) that allow the production of biogas from organic matter take place in landfills or in closed reactors commonly known as anaerobic digesters. The degassing of landfills by capturing the biogas generated improves their operational safety, and in many cases the energy from the biogas collected can also be exploited. In the case of anaerobic digesters, the organic matter (substrate) is fed and certain operating conditions are maintained (residence time, temperature, etc.). To maximise the production of biogas in the digesters, it is usual to mix different types of substrate (co-digestion), and special care must be taken that the chosen mixture allows the biological processes to run without inhibitions.
Biogas is the only renewable energy that can be used for any of the major energy applications: electrical, thermal or as a fuel. It can be channelled for direct use by, for example, a boiler adapted to use it as a fuel, or be injected (after purification to biomethane) into the existing natural gas infrastructure, for either transport or distribution.
Given that CH4 has a global warming potential 21 times greater than CO2, the appropriate use of biogas has great potential to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Regulation of quality requirements for introduction into the grid
CEN/TC 408 Working Group and draft standards prEN 16723-1 on specifications for the introduction of biomethane into the natural gas network (vote expected mid-April 2016) and prEN 16723-2 with specifications for its use as a fuel.