Studies, reports and statistics
Energy Balances
Energy Balances

Energy balances (1990-2021)

Energy balances of primary and final energy sectorized in thousands of tons of oil equivalent (ktoe). A total of 69 types of energy and 128 energy flows and/or sectors are detailed. Historical series from 1990 to 2021.

Balances energéticos anuales (Annual energy balances)

Metodología Balance energético anual (Methodology Annual energy balance)



Detail of Service Sector consumption (2019)
Energy consumption by subsectors of the service sector and energy sources expressed in energy units.

Consumption by use and energy for the Residencial Sector (2010-2021) 
Consumption for the residential sector, by uses and energy sources expressed in energy units.

Heat pumps Statistics (2014 – 2021)

Heat pump Statistics by climatic zones, types of heat pumps and sectors. The published information refers to the stock, capacity and usable heat, operating hours and SPF (Seasonal Performance Factor) of the heat pumps.

Calorific values
Calorific values and energy content of different products, used in the development of statistics and energy balances.

Energy indicators
energy indicators

The energy indicators relate the energy consumption to the economic or productive activity responsible for that consumption. Three links to indicators with different levels of sectoral and temporal disaggregation are included below.

Energy intensities (2021)  
Includes the evolution of energy intensity indicators in the main consumption sectors in Spain and neighbouring countries.

Detailed indicators (2021) 
Comparison of specific indicators by sectors, sub-sectors, uses and energy sources. In some cases, it includes adjustments (purchasing power parity, climate and structure), as well as a breakdown of intensity variations according to different effects. 



Renewable Energies Statistical Report 2021It includes information updated to February 2023 on available gross energy, final energy consumption, electrical power and production capacities with renewable energy for the year 2021. In addition, the situation in the Autonomous Communities, as well as the historical evolution since the year 2000 in terms of electrical power, installed solar surface and biofuel production capacity.

Summary Report of Energy Efficiency Indicators (2020)  
Includes a selection of energy efficiency indicators in the various sectors of socio-economic activity. 

Incluye una selección de parámetros e indicadores de interés para el análisis de la eficiencia energética tanto a nivel global como a nivel de los principales sectores de actividad socioeconómica.

Precios energéticos
Precios energéticos

Costs associated with tariffs applicable to gas and electricity consumption (regulated prices), sale prices of fuels and petroleum derived fuels and sale prices of biomass for thermal uses. 

Tarifas reguladas (07/2023) Regulated tariffs (Errata correction according to BOE nº 155 of June 30)

Tarifas reguladas (04/2023) Regulated tariffs (Revision of errata in the cost of raw material for natural gas TUR)

Combustibles y carburantes (09/2023) Solid and liquid fuels (2023 09)

Combustibles y carburantes (08/2023) Solid and liquid fuels (2023 08)

Combustibles y carburantes (072023) Solid and liquid fuels (2023 07)

Estudios e informes
Estudios e informes


Study on the habits and attitudes of non-regular users towards urban public transport

The study, carried out during 2016 through a Framework Collaboration Agreement between the Association of Collective Urban Transport Management Companies (ATUC) and IDAE, has identified, for a group of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants and for the group of non-regular users of urban public transport, the group’s main mobility habits and the potential for them to become regular users of their city’s public transport.

Summary of the Study of the Installed Base of Heat Pumps in Spain Summary of the study carried out by IDAE in 2014 estimating and characterizing the installed base of heat pumps in Spain, in accordance with the provisions of Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009, regarding the promotion of use of energy from renewable sources. The report presents the main results of the study segmented by three climatic zones (Atlantic-North, Continental and Mediterranean) and four end-use sectors (residential, industrial, retail-services and transport).  

Ciudad sostenible

Energy monitoring by sector (SES) Research work on final consumption in the sectors of Industry, Transport, Services and Residential, carried out by the IDAE in cooperation with companies and professional associations. Its objective is to contribute to knowledge about energy consumption and the variables which impact it in relevant sectors by deepening the level of disaggregation of energy balances. 
Summary of Energy Monitoring by Sector (until 2011)

ODYSSEE-MURE Proyecto de indicadores y medidas de eficiencia energética, apoyado por la Comisión Europea a través del Programa H2020. Integra una red compuesta por 36 organismos de 31 países europeos, mayoritariamente agencias de energía. España participa a través del IDAE desde 1996. Los objetivos principales del proyecto son el seguimiento comparativo del progreso de los Estados miembros y de la UE en materia de eficiencia energética mediante el uso de indicadores energéticos y la evaluación de medidas de eficiencia energética. Para ello, el proyecto se sustenta en dos Bases de Datos correspondientes a indicadores (ODYSSEE) y a medidas (MURE) de eficiencia energética, en base a las cuales se han desarrollado una serie de herramientas analíticas que  en conjunto facilitan el análisis y seguimiento de las políticas de eficiencia a nivel de la UE.

Web proyecto ODYSSEE-MURE

Informes nacionales: 


Otros países

Otros enlaces de interés:

“Policy briefs” o informes sintéticos de análisis de la eficiencia energética a nivel general y sectorial (edificios, transporte, industria)

Rehabilitación energética de los edificios en España y la UE. Experiencia adquirida y principales recomendaciones 

Herramientas analíticas de eficiencia energética



MESH Manual of statistics on energy consumption in households. A project coordinated by the IDAE, completed in December 2013 and carried out with the support of EUROSTAT and the special collaboration of representatives from Austria, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Slovenia. The objective of the work, in addition to deepening the analysis of consumption by uses and services, is to improve knowledge of the statistical practices related to the residential sector among the Member States and to facilitate a greater homogeneity of methodology and data collection between countries.

Statistics manual

Eurostat website

Spahousec Developed by the IDAE during 2010 and 2011, the Spahousec study has enabled detailed knowledge and analysis of energy consumption in the 17 million homes in Spain. The report includes the disaggregation by uses and energy sources, as well as the characteristics of the equipment by type of house, nationally and by representative climatic zone.

Summary of Basic Information 

Final report

En conformidad con los requerimientos exigidos por el Reglamento (UE) n.0 431/2014 de la Comisión entre los años 2016 y 2018 se ha realizado un nuevo estudio que complementa al estudio SPAHOUSEC, el estudio SPAHOUSEC II, dirigido a profundizar y a actualizar el conocimiento disponible del sector residencial, tiene como objetivo principal la determinación de los consumos térmicos de los hogares españoles que disponen de sistemas de calefacción individual basados en gas natural en sus primeras residencias o viviendas principales.

El estudio SPAHOUSEC II incluye una serie de particularidades que lo diferencian del anterior proyecto, siendo la diferencia principal la medición in situ de los consumos de gas natural en servicios de calefacción. El estudio ha permitido además profundizar en el conocimiento sobre la disponibilidad y el comportamiento asociado al equipamiento de los hogares dotados de sistemas individuales de calefacción



Vehículos eficientes

Efficient vehicles Directive 2009/33/EC for the promotion of clean and energy efficient vehicles, incorporates the impacts on energy consumption and polluting emissions of the purchase of vehicles by entities that provide public services. In Spain, the Directive was transposed into national legislation through articles 105 and 106 and the sixth additional provision of the Sustainable Economy Act. The European project “Clean Fleets” is being developed within the framework of the IEE programme to support administrations and operators in the application of the Directive. Includes recommendations and case studies of European cities.

Directive 2009/33/EC

Clean fleets website

Alternative propellants

Directive 2014/94 / EU establishes the minimum requirements for the creation of an infrastructure for alternative propellants. The implementation will be done through the national action frameworks of the Member States, as well as through the regulation of the common technical specifications on the recharge and supply points of these propellants.

Directive 2014/94 / EU has been transposed to the national legal order through the approval of the National Action Framework for alternative energies in transport (MAN) and Royal Decree 639/2016, of December 9, on the infrastructure of alternative fuels .

The following is a summary of the Spanish situation in relation to Directive 2014/94 / EU, as well as the links to the mentioned documents.

Directive 2014/94 / EU

Directive 2014/94 / EU, towards a more sustainable and efficient transport in the EU: Síntesis and the Spanish case.

Spanish National Action Framework for Alternative Energy in Transportation

Royal Decree 639/2016


Estado actual de la movilidad alternativa La situación actual de la movilidad asociada a los vehículos eléctricos y a otros propulsantes alternativos en cuanto a flotas e infraestructuras en España y otros países se puede consultar a través de los siguientes enlaces:

Mapa de vehículos y estaciones de repostaje según combustibles alternativos en España y en la Unión Europea

Panorámica global sobre la movilidad eléctrica nivel mundial

Transporte y movilidad sostenible: una oportunidad para España

Ciudades inteligent...

Ciudades inteligentes

Smart cities The problems of sustainability in our current cities and, more specifically, the problems of their energy systems, have been addressed in recent years within the EU under the common heading of “Smart City”. The following documents describe the panorama associated with this concept in Spain and neighbouring countries and report on the main technologies involved and their possible development in the urban environment of our country.

Technology map  



Renewables for heating and cooling Descriptive maps of three thermal generation technologies from three renewable sources (solar thermal, geothermal and biomass) with a view to their use in the building sector, primarily in urban environments. State of the art, initiatives and promoting bodies, barriers and expected market projections.

Solar Thermal



Water and energy Analysis of the interdependence between water and energy in our country and the role that science and technology can play in reducing the energy consumed in the water cycle. Estimation of energy consumption in desalination and urban treatment. Technology trends. 

Water sector study